What Should You Know About Diabetes

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Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone that helps the body tissues to absorb glucose (sugar) so it can be used as an energy source. The condition can also develop if muscle, fat, and liver cells respond poorly to insulin. In people with diabetes, glucose levels build up in the blood and urine, causing excessive urination, Thirst, hunger, and problems with fat and protein metabolism. Diabetes mellitus is different from the less common diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a lack of vasopressin hormone that controls the amount of urine is passed.
Diabetes mellitus, blood sugar, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, diet control, insulin, glucose

Diabetes is the most common in adults over 45 years; in people who are overweight or physically inactive; in individuals who have family members with diabetes; and people of African descent, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The highest rate of diabetes in the world happened to the Native Americans. More women than men have been diagnosed with the disease.

There are two types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, which usually begins in childhood, the pancreas stops making insulin completely. It is also called - insulin dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, which begins in adulthood (and in some teenagers) the body still makes some insulin. But that does not make enough insulin, or the body can not use it properly. It is also called free - insulin - dependent diabetes.

Diabetes is detected by measuring the amount of glucose in the blood after the individual has fasted (abstained from food) for about eight hours. In some cases, doctors diagnose diabetes by administering an oral glucose tolerance test, which measures glucose levels before and after a certain amount of sugar has been ingested. Other tests are being developed for type 1 diabetes looks for specific antibodies (immune system proteins that attack foreign substances) present only in people with diabetes. This test can detect the disease in type 1 diabetes in the early stages, reducing the risk of complications from the disease.

Once diagnosed with diabetes, treatment consists of controlling the amount of glucose in the blood and prevent complications. Depending on the type of diabetes, this can be achieved through regular physical exercise, carefully controlled diet, and medication.

People with Type 1 diabetes require insulin injections, often two to four times a day, to provide the body does not produce insulin. The amount of insulin needed varies from person to person and may be influenced by factors such as a person's level of physical activity, diet, and the presence of other health problems. Typically, people with type 1 diabetes use a meter several times a day to measure the level of glucose in a drop of blood obtained by pricking their fingers. They can then adjust the amount of insulin injected, physical exercise or food intake to keep blood sugar at normal levels. People with type 1 diabetes must carefully control their diet with distributing meals and snacks throughout the day so as not to master the ability of insulin supply to help and cells to absorb glucose. They also need to eat foods that contain complex sugars, which break down slowly and cause a slower rise in blood sugar levels.

For people with type 2 diabetes, treatment begins with diet control, exercise, and weight loss, although over time this treatment may not be adequate. People with type 2 diabetes typically work with nutritionists to formulate a diet plan that regulates blood sugar levels so that they do not rise too rapidly after a meal. The recommended foods are usually low in fat (30 percent or less of total calories), provides moderate protein (10 to 20 percent of total calories), and contains a variety of carbohydrates, such as beans, vegetables and grains. Regular exercise helps body cells absorb glucose - even ten minutes of exercise a day can be effective. Diet control and exercise may also play a role in weight reduction, which seems partially reverse the body's inability to use insulin